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Generally, the male (stag or hart) red deer is typically 175 to 250 cm long and weighs 160 to 240 kg; the female is 160 to 210 cm long and weighs 120 to 170 kg. The tail adds another 12 to 19 cm and shoulder height is about 95 to 130 cm. Size varies in different subspecies with the largest, the huge but small-antlered deer of the Carpathian Mountains, weighing up to 500 kg. European red deer tend to be reddish-brown in their summer coats. The males of many subspecies also grow a short neck mane during the autumn.

Only the stags have antlers, which start growing in the spring and are shed each year, usually at the end of winter. Antlers typically measure 71 cm (28 in) in total length and weigh 1 kg (2.2 lb), although large ones can grow to 115 cm (45 in) and weigh 5 kg (11 lb). Antlers are made of bone which can grow at a rate of 2.5 cm (1 in) a day. A soft covering known as velvet helps to protect newly forming antlers in the spring. European red deer antlers are distinctive in being rather straight and rugose, with the fourth and fifth tines forming a "crown" or "cup" in larger males. Any tines in excess of the fourth and fifth tine will grow radially from the cup, which are generally absent in the antlers of smaller red deer.

Good quality and quantity pastures and a good genetics are needed in order to favor the productive and reproductive potential of the animal. These two elements succeed in getting an effective reproduction.

Hunting of red deer with rifles or archery can be done mounted on a horse, walking and observing with binoculars through valleys and mountains. In this kind of hunt sight plays a crucial role. Shots are from around 80 to 280 meters.


The body of the wild boar is compact, the head is large, the legs relatively short. The fur consists of stiff bristles and usually finer fur. The color usually varies from dark grey to black or brown, but there are great regional differences in color. During winter the fur is much denser.

Wild boars vary considerably in size. In exceptionally large specimens, the species can rival the size of the giant forest hog. Adult boars can measure from 90 to 200 cm (35 to 79 in) in length, not counting a tail of 15 to 40 cm (5.9 to 15.7 in), and have a shoulder height of 55 to 110 cm (22 to 43 in). As a whole, their average weight is 50–90 kg (110–200 pounds), though boars show a great deal of weight variation within their geographical ranges.

They have prominent tusks which may be over 20cm long. These are larger in the male. They are omnivores and opportunists, and will eat virtually every plant or animal available.

It has evening habits and its acute sense of smell helps him find food. During the day it rests in dense vegetation. The sow is a superb protector of her young. Maternal family groups can travel together as well as back each other against danger.

The boars though are solitary except when they mate with any sow in season. Wild hogs will breed year round, but births peak in spring and fall. Gestation is 114 days, and a sow will give birth to anywhere from 1 to a dozen piglets.